Create 3 ORIGINAL math assessment items for the Mississippi Mathematics competency 5.MD.5. One item is to be an enhanced multiple-choice item, one is to be a constructed response item, and one is to be a performance item. This assignment is to make sure you understand the differences between these three formats. The questions you create MAY be used as part of your 25-question math test (due in Week 3). This standard has been unpacked for you at

5th Grade Mathematics � Unpacked Content August, 2011

5thGrade Mathematics � Unpacked Content For the new Common Core State Standards that will be effective in all North Carolina schools in the 2012-13 school year.

This document is designed to help North Carolina educators teach the Common Core (Standard Course of Study). NCDPI staff are continually updating and improving these tools to better serve teachers.

What is the purpose of this document? To increase student achievement by ensuring educators understand specifically what the new standards mean a student must know, understand and be able to do. This document may also be used to facilitate discussion among teachers and curriculum staff and to encourage coherence in the sequence, pacing, and units of study for grade-level curricula. This document, along with on-going professional development, is one of many resources used to understand and teach the CCSS.

What is in the document? Descriptions of what each standard means a student will know, understand and be able to do. The “unpacking” of the standards done in this document is an effort to answer a simple question “What does this standard mean that a student must know and be able to do?” and to ensure the description is helpful, specific and comprehensive for educators.

How do I send Feedback? We intend the explanations and examples in this document to be helpful and specific. That said, we believe that as this document is used, teachers and educators will find ways in which the unpacking can be improved and made ever more useful. Please send feedback to us at [email protected] and we will use your input to refine our unpacking of the standards. Thank You!

Just want the standards alone? You can find the standards alone at http://corestandards.org/the-standards

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At A Glance This page provides a snapshot of the mathematical concepts that are new or have been removed from this grade level as well as instructional considerations for the first year of implementation. New to 5th Grade:

• Patterns in zeros when multiplying (5.NBT.2) • Extend understandings of multiplication and division of fractions (5.NF.3, 5.NF.45.NF.5, 5.NF.7) • Conversions of measurements within the same system (5.MD.1) • Volume (5.MD.3, 5.MD.4, 5.MD.5) • Coordinate System (5.G.1, 5.02) • Two-dimensional figures – hierarchy (5.G.3, 5.G.4) • Line plot to display measurements (5.MD.2)

Moved from 5th Grade:

• Estimate measure of objects from on system to another system (2.01) • Measure of angles (2.01) • Describe triangles and quadrilaterals (3.01) • Angles, diagonals, parallelism and perpendicularity (3.02, 3.04) • Symmetry – line and rotational (3.03) • Data – stem-and-leaf plots, different representations, median, range and mode (4.01, 4.02, 4.03) • Constant and carrying rates of change (5.03)

Notes:

• Topics may appear to be similar between the CCSS and the 2003 NCSCOS; however, the CCSS may be presented at a higher cognitive demand.

• For more detailed information see Math Crosswalks: http://www.dpi.state.nc.us/acre/standards/support-tools/ Instructional considerations for CCSS implementation in 2012-2013

• Develop a fundamental understanding that the multiplication of a fraction by a whole number could be presented as repeated addition of a unit fraction (e.g., 2 x (¼ ) = ¼ + ¼ ) before working with the concept of a fraction times a fraction. This concept will be taught in fourth grade next year.

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Standards for Mathematical Practices The Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice are expected to be integrated into every mathematics lesson for all students Grades K-12. Below are a few examples of how these Practices may be integrated into tasks that students complete.

Mathematic Practices Explanations and Examples 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

Mathematically proficient students in grade 5should solve problems by applying their understanding of operations with whole numbers, decimals, and fractions including mixed numbers. They solve problems related to volume and measurement conversions. Students seek the meaning of a problem and look for efficient ways to represent and solve it. They may check their thinking by asking themselves, “What is the most efficient way to solve the problem?”, “Does this make sense?”, and “Can I solve the problem in a different way?”.

2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

Mathematically proficient students in grade 5should recognize that a number represents a specific quantity. They connect quantities to written symbols and create a logical representation of the problem at hand, considering both the appropriate units involved and the meaning of quantities. They extend this understanding from whole numbers to their work with fractions and decimals. Students write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers and represent or round numbers using place value concepts.

3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

In fifth grade mathematical proficient students may construct arguments using concrete referents, such as objects, pictures, and drawings. They explain calculations based upon models and properties of operations and rules that generate patterns. They demonstrate and explain the relationship between volume and multiplication. They refine their mathematical communication skills as they participate in mathematical discussions involving questions like “How did you get that?” and “Why is that true?” They explain their thinking to others and respond to others’ thinking.

4. Model with mathematics.

Mathematically proficient students in grade 5 experiment with representing problem situations in multiple ways including numbers, words (mathematical language), drawing pictures, using objects, making a chart, list, or graph, creating equations, etc. Students need opportunities to connect the different representations and explain the connections. They should be able to use all of these representations as needed. Fifth graders should evaluate their results in the context of the situation and whether the results make sense. They also evaluate the utility of models to determine which models are most useful and efficient to solve problems.

5. Use appropriate tools strategically.

Mathematically proficient fifth graders consider the available tools (including estimation) when solving a mathematical problem and decide when certain tools might be helpful. For instance, they may use unit cubes to fill a rectangular prism and then use a ruler to measure the dimensions. They use graph paper to accurately create graphs and solve problems or make predictions from real world data.

6. Attend to precision. Mathematically proficient students in grade 5 continue to refine their mathematical communication skills by using clear and precise language in their discussions with others and in their own reasoning. Students use appropriate terminology when referring to expressions, fractions, geometric figures, and coordinate grids. They are careful about specifying units of measure and state the meaning of the symbols they choose. For instance, when figuring out the volume of a rectangular prism they record their answers in cubic units.

7. Look for and make use of structure.

In fifth grade mathematically proficient students look closely to discover a pattern or structure. For instance, students use properties of operations as strategies to add, subtract, multiply and divide with whole numbers, fractions, and decimals. They examine numerical patterns and relate them to a rule or a graphical representation.

8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

Mathematically proficient fifth graders use repeated reasoning to understand algorithms and make generalizations about patterns. Students connect place value and their prior work with operations to understand algorithms to fluently multiply multi-digit numbers and perform all operations with decimals to hundredths. Students explore operations with fractions with visual models and begin to formulate generalizations.

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Grade 5 Critical Areas

The Critical Areas are designed to bring focus to the standards at each grade by describing the big ideas that educators can use to build their curriculum and to guide instruction. The Critical Areas for fifth grade can be found on page 33 in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics.

1. Developing fluency with addition and subtraction of fractions, and developing understanding of the multiplication of fractions and of division of fractions in limited cases (unit fractions divided by whole numbers and whole numbers divided by unit fractions). Students apply their understanding of fractions and fraction models to represent the addition and subtraction of fractions with unlike denominators as equivalent calculations with like denominators. They develop fluency in calculating sums and differences of fractions, and make reasonable estimates of them. Students also use the meaning of fractions, of multiplication and division, and the relationship between multiplication and division to understand and explain why the procedures for multiplying and dividing fractions make sense. (Note: this is limited to the case of dividing unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions.)

2. Extending division to 2-digit divisors, integrating decimal fractions into the place value system and developing

understanding of operations with decimals to hundredths, and developing fluency with whole number and decimal operations. Students develop understanding of why division procedures work based on the meaning of base-ten numerals and properties of operations. They finalize fluency with multi-digit addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. They apply their understandings of models for decimals, decimal notation, and properties of operations to add and subtract decimals to hundredths. They develop fluency in these computations, and make reasonable estimates of their results. Students use the relationship between decimals and fractions, as well as the relationship between finite decimals and whole numbers (i.e., a finite decimal multiplied by an appropriate power of 10 is a whole number), to understand and explain why the procedures for multiplying and dividing finite decimals make sense. They compute products and quotients of decimals to hundredths efficiently and accurately.

3. Developing understanding of volume.

Students recognize volume as an attribute of three-dimensional space. They understand that volume can be measured by finding the total number of same-size units of volume required to fill the space without gaps or overlaps. They understand that a 1-unit by 1-unit by 1-unit cube is the standard unit for measuring volume. They select appropriate units, strategies, and tools for solving problems that involve estimating and measuring volume. They decompose three-dimensional shapes and find volumes of right rectangular prisms by viewing them as decomposed into layers of arrays of cubes. They measure necessary attributes of shapes in order to determine volumes to solve real world and mathematical problems.

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Operations and Algebraic Thinking 5.0A Common Core Cluster Write and interpret numerical expressions. Mathematically proficient students communicate precisely by engaging in discussion about their reasoning using appropriate mathematical language. The terms students should learn to use with increasing precision with this cluster are: parentheses, brackets, braces, numerical expressions

Common Core Standard Unpacking What do these standards mean a child will know and be able to do?

5.OA.1 Use parentheses, brackets, or braces in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols.

The standard calls for students to evaluate expressions with parentheses ( ), brackets [ ] and braces { }. In upper levels of mathematics, evaluate means to substitute for a variable and simplify the expression. However at this level students are to only simplify the expressions because there are no variables. Example: Evaluate the expression 2{ 5[12 + 5(500 – 100) + 399]} Students should have experiences working with the order of first evaluating terms in parentheses, then brackets, and then braces. The first step would be to subtract 500 – 100 = 400. Then multiply 400 by 5 = 2,000. Inside the bracket, there is now [12 + 2,000 + 399]. That equals 2,411. Next multiply by the 5 outside of the bracket. 2,411 x 5 = 12,055. Next multiply by the 2 outside of the braces. 12,055 x 2= 24,110. Mathematically, there cannot be brackets or braces in a problem that does not have parentheses. Likewise, there cannot be braces in a problem that does not have both parentheses and brackets. This standard builds on the expectations of third grade where students are expected to start learning the conventional order. Students need experiences with multiple expressions that use grouping symbols throughout the year to develop understanding of when and how to use parentheses, brackets, and braces. First, students use these symbols with whole numbers. Then the symbols can be used as students add, subtract, multiply and divide decimals and fractions. Example:

• (26 + 18) 4 Solution: 11 • {[2 x (3+5)] – 9} + [5 x (23-18)] Solution: 32 • 12 – (0.4 x 2) Solution: 11.2 • (2 + 3) x (1.5 – 0.5) Solution: 5

• 1 16 2 3 ⎛ ⎞− +⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Solution: 5 1/6

• { 80 ÷ [ 2 x (3 ½ + 1 ½ ) ] }+ 100 Solution: 108

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To further develop students’ understanding of grouping symbols and facility with operations, students place grouping symbols in equations to make the equations true or they compare expressions that are grouped differently. Example:

• 15 – 7 – 2 = 10 → 15 – (7 – 2) = 10 • 3 x 125 ÷ 25 + 7 = 22 → [3 x (125 ÷ 25)] + 7 = 22 • 24 ÷ 12 ÷ 6 ÷ 2 = 2 x 9 + 3 ÷ ½ → 24 ÷ [(12 ÷ 6) ÷ 2] = (2 x 9) + (3 ÷ ½) • Compare 3 x 2 + 5 and 3 x (2 + 5) • Compare 15 – 6 + 7 and 15 – (6 + 7)

5.OA.2 Write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them. For example, express the calculation “add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2” as 2 × (8 + 7). Recognize that 3 × (18932 + 921) is three times as large as 18932 + 921, without having to calculate the indicated sum or product.

This standard refers to expressions. Expressions are a series of numbers and symbols (+, -, x, ÷) without an equals sign. Equations result when two expressions are set equal to each other (2 + 3 = 4 + 1). Example: 4(5 + 3) is an expression. When we compute 4(5 + 3) we are evaluating the expression. The expression equals 32. 4(5 + 3) = 32 is an equation. This standard calls for students to verbally describe the relationship between expressions without actually calculating them. This standard calls for students to apply their reasoning of the four operations as well as place value while describing the relationship between numbers. The standard does not include the use of variables, only numbers and signs for operations. Example: Write an expression for the steps “double five and then add 26.”

Student (2 x 5) + 26

Describe how the expression 5(10 x 10) relates to 10 x 10.

Student The expression 5(10 x 10) is 5 times larger than the expression 10 x 10 since I know that I that 5(10 x 10) means that I have 5 groups of (10 x 10).

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Common Core Cluster Analyze patterns and relationships. Mathematically proficient students communicate precisely by engaging in discussion about their reasoning using appropriate mathematical language. The terms students should learn to use with increasing precision with this cluster are: numerical patterns, rules, ordered pairs, coordinate plane

Common Core Standard Unpacking What do these standards mean a child will know and be able to do?

5.OA.3 Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules. Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms. Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate plane. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 0, and given the rule “Add 6” and the starting number 0, generate terms in the resulting sequences, and observe that the terms in one sequence are twice the corresponding terms in the other sequence. Explain informally why this is so.

This standard extends the work from Fourth Grade, where students generate numerical patterns when they are given one rule. In Fifth Grade, students are given two rules and generate two numerical patterns. The graphs that are created should be line graphs to represent the pattern. This is a linear function which is why we get the straight lines. The Days are the independent variable, Fish are the dependent variables, and the constant rate is what the rule identifies in the table. Example:

Example:

Make a chart (table) to represent the number of fish that Sam and Terri catch.

Days Sam’s Total Number of Fish

Terri’s Total Number of Fish

0 0 0

1 2 4

2 4 8

3 6 12

4 8 16

5 10 20

Describe the pattern: Since Terri catches 4 fish each day, and Sam catches 2 fish, the amount of Terri’s fish is always greater. Terri’s fish is also always twice as much as Sam’s fish. Today, both Sam and Terri have no fish. They both go fishing each day. Sam catches 2 fish each day. Terri catches 4 fish each day. How many fish do they have after each of the five days? Make a graph of the number of fish.

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Plot the points on a coordinate plane and make a line graph, and then interpret the graph. Student: My graph shows that Terri always has more fish than Sam. Terri’s fish increases at a higher rate since she catches 4 fish every day. Sam only catches 2 fish every day, so his number of fish increases at a smaller rate than Terri. Important to note as well that the lines become increasingly further apart. Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms. Additional relationships: The two lines will never intersect; there will not be a day in which boys have the same total of fish, explain the relationship between the number of days that has passed and the number of fish a boy has (2n or 4n, n being the number of days).

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Example: Use the rule “add 3” to write a sequence of numbers. Starting with a 0, students write 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, . . . Use the rule “add 6” to write a sequence of numbers. Starting with 0, students write 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, . . . After comparing these two sequences, the students notice that each term in the second sequence is twice the corresponding terms of the first sequence. One way they justify this is by describing the patterns of the terms. Their justification may include some mathematical notation (See example below). A student may explain that both sequences start with zero and to generate each term of the second sequence he/she added 6, which is twice as much as was added to produce the terms in the first sequence. Students may also use the distributive property to describe the relationship between the two numerical patterns by reasoning that 6 + 6 + 6 = 2 (3 + 3 + 3). 0, +3 3, +3 6, +3 9, +312, . . . 0, +6 6, +6 12, +618, +6 24, . . . Once students can describe that the second sequence of numbers is twice the corresponding terms of the first sequence, the terms can be written in ordered pairs and then graphed on a coordinate grid. They should recognize that each point on the graph represents two quantities in which the second quantity is twice the first quantity. Ordered pairs

(0, 0)

(3, 6)

(6, 12)

(9, 18)

(12, 24)

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Number and Operations in Base Ten 5.NBT Common Core Cluster Understand the place value system. Mathematically proficient students communicate precisely by engaging in discussion about their reasoning using appropriate mathematical language. The terms students should learn to use with increasing precision with this cluster are: place value, decimal, decimal point, patterns, multiply, divide, tenths, thousands, greater than, less than, equal to, ‹, ›, =, compare/comparison, round

Common Core Standard Unpacking What do these standards mean a child will know and be able to do?

5.NBT.1 Recognize that in a multi-digit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left.

This standard calls for students to reason about the magnitude of numbers. Students should work with the idea that the tens place is ten times as much as the ones place, and the ones place is 1/10th the size of the tens place. In fourth grade, students examined the relationships of the digits in numbers for whole numbers only. This standard extends this understanding to the relationship of decimal fractions. Students use base ten blocks, pictures of base ten blocks, and interactive images of base ten blocks to manipulate and investigate the place value relationships. They use their understanding of unit fractions to compare decimal places and fractional language to describe those comparisons. Before considering the relationship of decimal fractions, students express their understanding that in multi-digit whole numbers, a digit in one place represents 10 times what it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left. Example: The 2 in the number 542 is different from the value of the 2 in 324. The 2 in 542 represents 2 ones or 2, while the 2 in 324 represents 2 tens or 20. Since the 2 in 324 is one place to the left of the 2 in 542 the value of the 2 is 10 times greater. Meanwhile, the 4 in 542 represents 4 tens or 40 and the 4 in 324 represents 4 ones or 4. Since the 4 in 324 is one place to the right of the 4 in 542 the value of the 4 in the number 324 is 1/10th of its value in the number 542. Example: A student thinks, “I know that in the number 5555, the 5 in the tens place (5555) represents 50 and the 5 in the hundreds place (5555) represents 500. So a 5 in the hundreds place is ten times as much as a 5 in the tens place or a 5 in the tens place is 1/10 of the value of a 5 in the hundreds place. Base on the base-10 number system digits to the left are times as great as digits to the right; likewise, digits to the right are 1/10th of digits to the left. For example, the 8 in 845 has a value of 800 which is ten times as much as the 8 in the number 782. In the same spirit, the 8 in 782 is 1/10th the value of the 8 in 845.

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To extend this understanding of place value to their work with decimals, students use a model of one unit; they cut it into 10 equal pieces, shade in, or describe 1/10 of that model using fractional language (“This is 1 out of 10 equal parts. So it is 1/10”. I can write this using 1/10 or 0.1”). They repeat the process by finding 1/10 of a 1/10 (e.g., dividing 1/10 into 10 equal parts to arrive at 1/100 or 0.01) and can explain their reasoning, “0.01 is 1/10 of 1/10 thus is 1/100 of the whole unit.” In the number 55.55, each digit is 5, but the value of the digits is different because of the placement.

5 5 . 5 5 The 5 that the arrow points to is 1/10 of the 5 to the left and 10 times the 5 to the right. The 5 in the ones place is 1/10 of 50 and 10 times five tenths.

5 5 . 5 5 The 5 that the arrow points to is 1/10 of the 5 to the left and 10 times the 5 to the right. The 5 in the tenths place is 10 times five hundredths.

5.NBT.2 Explain patterns in the number of zeros of the product when multiplying a number by powers of 10, and explain patterns in the placement of the decimal point when a decimal is multiplied or divided by a power of 10. Use whole-number exponents to denote powers of 10.

This standard includes multiplying by multiples of 10 and powers of 10, including 102 which is 10 x 10=100, and 103 which is 10 x 10 x 10=1,000. Students should have experiences working with connecting the pattern of the number of zeros in the product when you multiply by powers of 10. Example: 2.5 x 103 = 2.5 x (10 x 10 x 10) = 2.5 x 1,000 = 2,500 Students should reason that the exponent above the 10 indicates how many places the decimal point is moving (not just that the decimal point is moving but that you are multiplying or making the number 10 times greater three times) when you multiply by a power of 10. Since we are multiplying by a power of 10 the decimal point moves to the right. 350 ÷ 103 = 350 ÷ 1,000 = 0.350 = 0.35 350/10 = 35, 35 /10 = 3.5 3.5 /10 =.0.35, or 350 x 1/10, 35 x 1/10,

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3.5 x 1/10 this will relate well to subsequent work with operating with fractions. This example shows that when we divide by powers of 10, the exponent above the 10 indicates how many places the decimal point is moving (how many times we are dividing by 10 , the number becomes ten times smaller). Since we are dividing by powers of 10, the decimal point moves to the left. Students need to be provided with opportunities to explore this concept and come to this understanding; this should not just be taught procedurally. Example: Students might write:

• 36 x 10 = 36 x 101 = 360 • 36 x 10 x 10 = 36 x 102 = 3600 • 36 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 36 x 103 = 36,000 • 36 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 36 x 104 = 360,000

Students might think and/or say:

• I noticed that every time, I multiplied by 10 I added a zero to the end of the number. That makes sense because each digit’s value became 10 times larger. To make a digit 10 times larger, I have to move it one place value to the left.

• When I multiplied 36 by 10, the 30 became 300. The 6 became 60 or the 36 became 360. So I had to add a